kapas

Dalam hal ini membahas mengenai sejarah kapas, dimana al qotan berasal dari bahasa arab, belum dapat dipastikan siapa di dunia ini yang menemukan kapas, dengan berbagai klaim dari setiap belahan dunia dalam hal menemukan kapas. Varietas kapas mempunyai 39 species yang tersebar diseluruh pelosok dunia dikenal secara umum dengan sebutan Gossypium, 4 species yang popular di dunia adalah ; Gossypium Hirsutum, Gossypium Barbadense, Gossypium Harbaceum dan Gossypium Arborium. Untuk kegiatan produksi kapas atau cotton merupakan tanaman musim panas, ditanam secara berkala setiap tahunnya. Ditanam di Amerika pada bulan februari dan diteruskan pada bulan juni (di utara amerika). Kebutuhan akan pupuk amat bervariasi, disesuaikan dengan kondisi tanahnya, pupuk utama yang paling penting adalah : Nitrogen, Phospor dan Potasium. Kerugian atas dampak dari hama sangat besar bias mencapai 10%-15% persen dari panen keseluruhan, sehingga para petani melakukan tindakan preventif dengan pestisida yang berfungsi sebagai disinfectan bagi tanaman (dari mulai biji dan persemaian), hama yang sangat popular pada tanaman kapas adalah Aphids (lalat putih) dan Thrips (kupu-kupu). Tunas kapas biasanya tumbuh setelah 1-2 minggu setelah ditanam, kuncup bunga tumbuh tumbuh 5-6 minggu. 2-3 minggu setelahnya didapat bunga warna putih dan kemudian menguning sampai berwarna merah muda, bunga jatuh dan meninggalkan bakal buah dan tumbuh menjadi cotton boll (kuncup kapas). Panen dalam komoditas kapas menggunakan mesin picker yang menggunakan spindle picker system, secara sederhana spindle yang ada mengambil serat kapas dari tangkainya, dengan sistem pneumatic kapas yang menempel di spindle dipindahkan oleh picker ke storage basket secara otamatis, untuk daerah yang rawan angin tornado biasanya menggunakan mesin Mechanical Stripper Harvester, yang secara sederhana pada mesin ini memanen bukan hanya kucup akan tetapi batang dari pohon kapas . Setelah didapat hasil panen penyimpanan hasil panen tersebut juga perlu diperhatikan, disimpan pada penampungan; 4-6 bales (trailer holding) atau yang lebih besar 10-15 bales (Module Bulider).

Untuk membawa seed ke ginning, module biasanya ditarik dengan seed khusus menggunakan pipa atau suction system. Secara prinsip ginning berarti memisahkan serat kapas dari bijinya, untuk budidaya biji kapas sendiri dapat termanfaatkan menjadi; minyak (untuk makanan), Meal ( tambahan protein dan supplement), Hulls(ragi dan pengawet makanan), dan Linters (serat pendek sisa ginning untuk pembuatan kasur dan bubuk mesiu). Tahapan proses ginning sendiri terbagi atas ; Drying (pembuangan kandungan air yang berlebihan untuk mempermudah proses pembersihan serat dari trash), Cleaning (pembersihan sisa-sisa batang dan tangkai, rumput dan pasir), extracting (pembersihan dari partikel-partikel besar seperti batang), Feeding (penyuapan masing-masing ‘Gin stand’), ginning (pemisahan serat dari bijinya), pembersihan serat (membersihkan ulang serat dari materi kotoran) dan Packing (pembungkusan kapas disesuaikan dengan berat dan volume permintaan pasar).

Categories: pemintalan, tekstil, teori
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